For General anesthesia (anesthesia or General anesthesia) in modern anesthesia using various drugs. Depending on their physico-chemical properties and methods of using them to divide the inhalation and non-inhalation.
To means of inhalation narcosis include a number of volatile (volatile) liquids (halothane, ether for anesthesia) and gases (mainly nitrous oxide). Due to the good properties were anesthetized and safety (non-flammable and non-explosive) fluorinated hydrocarbons, especially halothane, are widely used in anesthetic practice, replacing the previously used Cyclopropane and limiting the use of ether for anesthesia. Lost value as a means of chloroform narcosis.
The means for neingalyatsionnyh anesthesia include barbiturates (thiopental sodium) and nebarbiturovye drugs (ketamine, etc.).
For induction of anesthesia (induction) is often used neingalyatsionnyh drugs (barbiturates etc.), injected intravenously or intramuscularly, and the basic inhalation anesthesia is carried out or the means for neingalyatsionnyh anesthesia. Primary anaesthesia is available in one — a simple (mononarkoz), or multi — combined. Induction of anesthesia may also be relevant concentrations for inhalation narcosis (nitrous oxide mixed with oxygen, etc.).
In preparation for surgery premedication is, including the appointment of the patient calming, analgesic, holinoliticheskih, cardiovascular and other drugs. These funds are used to attenuate negative effects on the body emotional stress prior to surgery and to prevent possible side effects associated with anesthesia and surgery (reflex, hemodynamic instability, increased secretion of glands of the respiratory tract, etc.). Premedication facilitates narcosis: may decrease the concentration or dose used for anesthesia means less expressed phase excitation, etc.
During anesthesia and leaving it also use analgesics, muscle relaxants (or demoralizowa funds), cardiovascular drugs, etc., contributing to the preservation of body functions on a physiological level.
In recent years, General anesthesia is widely used intravenous various combinations of neurotropic funds seeking so-called balanced anesthesia without the use of traditional inhalation for anesthesia. One of the methods of this type of General anesthesia based on the use of neuroleptics (droperidol) in combination with analgesics (fentanyl, trimeperidin, etc.) is neuroleptanalgesia (NLA). Another multicomponent method ataralgesia, or tranquillity also involves the use of analgesics (fentanyl, trimeperidin etc.) in combination with tranquilizers (diazepam, phenazepam etc.), sodium oxybate, holinolitikami (atropine, metacine iodide) and other drugs.
One of the methods of General anesthesia is the introduction of narcotic analgesics (morphine or other) in the spinal canal.