The adrenal cortex of mammals and humans produces a variety of steroid hormones, called corticosteroids. They are derivatives of the pregnane and chemical structure are divided into 11-dezoksisteroidy, 11 oksisteroidy and 11,17 oksisteroidy. The first group includes deoxycorticosterone. The group 11,17-oksisteroidov include cortisone, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and a number of their derivatives. Cortisone, hydrocortisone, deoxycorticosterone are endogenous substances produced in the body. They are isolated in crystalline form and can be obtained synthetically.
As drugs also used a number of synthetic corticosteroids. The endogenous hormones of the adrenal cortex essential for life of humans and animals. Animals die within a few days after removal of the adrenal glands (adrenektomii). Acute adrenal insufficiency is accompanied by a thickening of the blood, lower blood pressure, gastrointestinal disorders, fatigue, decrease in body temperature and basal metabolism; also observed were hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, the delay in the blood of nitrogenous substances. Introduction adrenektomirovannym animals corticosteroids prevents the development of these pathological phenomena.
The effect on the metabolism of the corticosteroids are divided conditionally on two groups: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Cortisone and hydrocortisone are the main representatives of glucocorticoids deoxycorticosterone is mineralocorticoid.